Looking to ace your next software testing interview for software testing jobs? Our comprehensive guide to software testing interview questions for freshers and manual testing interview questions for experienced has got you covered! Whether you are a beginner or an experienced tester. Our expertly crafted list of Software Testing interview questions will help you prepare for any types of software testing.
Here we are covering from basic concepts like types of software testing, What is functional and non-functional testing. More advanced topics like unit testing in software engineering and black box testing in software engineering. Our guide covers a wide range of topics that are commonly asked in software testing interviews.
With our guide, you will not only gain a better understanding of key software testing concepts. But also, will be able to confidently answer even the most challenging interview questions.
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Q1. What is Software testing?
Software testing is the process of evaluating a software product to identify and report defects or issues. That could negatively impact its functionality, reliability, usability, performance, security, or other quality attributes.
The goal of software testing is to ensure that the software meets its requirements and satisfies the needs of its users. By testing the software, defects can be identified and corrected before the software is released to users. Testing helps to improve the quality of the software and increases the chances of it being successful in the market.
Software testing can be performed in various stages of the software development life cycle, including unit testing, integration testing, system testing, acceptance testing, and regression testing. Testing can also be performed using various methods, such as manual testing, automated testing, and exploratory testing.
Software Testing Interview Questions for Freshers
Q2. Explain software testing life cycle?
Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) is the process of evaluating the quality of a software product through a series of planned and systematic activities. The STLC consists of the following stages:
- Requirements Analysis: This stage involves analyzing the requirements and identifying the testable features of the software. It is important to ensure that all requirements are complete, clear and unambiguous.
- Test Planning: In this stage, a comprehensive test plan is developed. The plan includes testing strategy, objectives, test scenarios, test cases, test environment, and the roles and responsibilities of the testing team.
- Test Design: The test design stage involves creating test cases and test scenarios based on the test objectives and the software requirements. This stage involves creating test data and identifying the expected outcomes.
- Test Execution: In this stage, the actual testing is performed. The test cases are executed, and the actual results are compared with the expected results. Any defects or issues are reported to the development team for resolution.
- Defect Tracking: The defects that are identified during the testing phase are logged in a defect tracking system. Each defect is assigned a priority and severity level.
- Test Reporting: The test results are documented and communicated to the stakeholders. This includes a summary of the testing activities, the number of defects found, the test coverage and the overall quality of the software.
- Test Closure: The test closure stage involves the final reporting and sign-off of the testing activities. The test team prepares a final report that includes the test summary, the defects found and resolved, and the lessons learned.
It is an iterative process, which means that activities can be repeated multiple times until desired quality level is achieved. The STLC is an important process that ensures that software is thoroughly tested and meets the specified requirements before it’s released to end-users.
Q3. Explain about different types of testing?
There are different types of software testing and each with its own purpose and objective. Here are some of the most common types:
- Unit Testing: This type of testing involves testing individual units or components of the software to ensure that they function as intended. It is typically performed by developers using automated testing tools.
- Integration Testing: Integration testing is the process of testing how different modules of a software system interact with each other. It is used to ensure that the modules work together seamlessly.
- System Testing: It involves testing the entire software system as a whole to ensure that it meets the specified requirements. This type of testing is usually performed by dedicated testing team.
- User Acceptance Testing: User Acceptance testing is conducted to verify that software meets the acceptance criteria and is ready for release. This type of testing is usually performed by end-users or stakeholders.
- Regression Testing: Regression testing is used to verify that changes made to the software do not negatively impact existing functionality. It involves retesting previously tested software to ensure that it still works as intended.
- Performance Testing: Performance testing is used to evaluate how well the software performs under various conditions. Such as heavy user loads or with limited resources.
- Security Testing: Security testing is used to ensure that the software is secure, and it protects sensitive information from unauthorized access.
These are just a few examples of the many types of software testing that can be performed to ensure that software meets its quality requirements.
Q4. What is regression testing in software testing?
Regression testing is a type of software testing that is performed to ensure that changes to an existing software application. And do not adversely affect the existing functionality of the application. The primary objective of regression testing is to identify any defects that may have been introduced as a result of changes. That made to the software, and to ensure that the existing functionality of the software is not impacted by these changes.
When software is modified, whether it be through bug fixes or new feature additions. It is important to ensure that changes do not cause any unintended effects on the rest of the software. Regression testing is a way to detect any issues that might have arisen due to these changes. By retesting the entire application, including any affected or related areas of the application. Regression testing can identify defects or issues that might have been introduced due to the changes made to the software.
Regression testing can be performed manually or through automated testing. It can be executed at different points in the software development life cycle. Such as during the development, after system testing, or prior to release. The frequency of regression testing may vary depending on the size and complexity of the software being tested. The frequency of changes made to the software and the criticality of the software to the business.
Q5. Explain the principles of software testing?
Software testing is the process of verifying and validating a software application. It ensures that it meets the specified requirements and performs as intended. The principles of software testing are a set of guidelines that help testers perform effective and efficient software testing.
Here are the main principles of software testing:
Testing shows presence of defects: The primary objective of software testing is to identify defects and errors in the software system. Testing does not prove that the software is perfect but helps to detect the errors in it.
Exhaustive testing is impossible: Testing every possible combination of inputs and outputs is not feasible as it would take an infinite amount of time. Therefore, the focus of testing should be on the high-risk areas and critical functionalities.
Early testing: It should be started as early as possible in the software development life cycle (SDLC). Early testing can help to detect defects and errors at an early stage. Which can reduce the cost and time of fixing them.
Defect clustering: Defect clustering refers to the observation that a small number of modules or functionalities contain a large number of defects. By identifying these defect-prone areas, testers can focus on them to improve the software quality.
Pesticide paradox: If the same test cases are repeated again and again, eventually, the test cases will no longer find new defects. Therefore, testers need to continually update and modify the test cases to ensure that new defects can be found.
Testing is context-dependent: Testing should be tailored to the specific context of the software project. Including the requirements, technologies, and business objectives. What works for one project may not work for another.
Absence-of-errors fallacy: The absence of errors found during testing does not guarantee that the software is defect-free. There may still be undiscovered defects, and additional testing is required to ensure the software is of high quality.
Testing is a process of discovery: Testing is an exploratory process, and defects are discovered through testing. Therefore, the testers must adopt a flexible mindset to explore the software in various ways to find defects.
In summary, following these principles of software testing can help testers to design effective test cases, identify and report defects, and improve the overall software quality.
Q6. What do you understand by end-to-end testing?
End-to-end testing is a type of software testing that evaluates the functionality of a software application as a complete system. From start to finish, to ensure that all the components of the system are working together correctly. The purpose of end-to-end testing is to simulate real-world user scenarios and validate the system’s ability to deliver the intended business value.
In an end-to-end testing scenario, the software application is tested as a whole. Which includes its components, subsystems, and their interfaces. The goal is to identify any defects or issues that may arise from the interactions between different components of the system.
End-to-end testing involves test of software application’s features, data flow, and user interactions in a production-like environment, from beginning to end. It checks the complete system’s performance and functionality. Which includes the interfaces with external systems, network connections, and database management systems. The test cases are designed to ensure that the system behaves as expected when it is in a live environment.
The main advantage of end-to-end testing is that it helps to identify defects early in the development process. Which can reduce the cost and effort required to fix them. It also helps to ensure that the software application is fully integrated and performs as expected. Which can improve the user experience and customer satisfaction.
In conclusion, end-to-end testing is an essential part of software testing. That evaluates complete system’s performance and functionality in a real-world environment. It helps to identify defects and issues early in development process and ensure that software application delivers the intended business value.
Q7. What is unit testing?
Unit testing is a type of software testing that involves testing individual units or components of a software application. The goal of unit testing is to ensure that each unit or module of software application is working as expected.
In unit testing, the individual units or components of the software application are tested in isolation from the rest of the system. Each unit is tested to ensure that it meets its specified requirements. It handles different input values correctly and produces the expected output. The tests are usually automated and executed frequently during the development process to catch defects early.
The benefits of unit testing include:
Early detection of defects: Unit testing can detect defects and errors in individual units of the software application before they affect the system as a whole. This can save time and money in the long run by catching defects early in the development process.
Better code quality: Unit testing encourages developers to write clean, modular, and maintainable code that can be easily tested. This can result in better code quality and reduce the likelihood of introducing new defects.
Faster debugging: If a defect is detected during unit testing. It is easier to locate and fix since the issue is isolated to a specific unit or component.
Improved code documentation: Unit testing serve as documentation for the individual units or components of the software application. Making it easier for developers to understand and modify the code.
In conclusion, unit testing is an essential part of software testing that involves testing individual units or components of a software application. It can detect defects early, improve code quality. It speeds up debugging, making it an effective method for ensuring the overall quality of the software application.
Q8. What is exploratory testing?
Exploratory testing is a type of software testing that emphasizes the tester’s creativity, experience, and intuition to find defects in a software application. Here the tester designs and executes test cases simultaneously while exploring the software application and learning about its behavior and functionality.
Unlike traditional testing, where test cases are designed in advance, exploratory testing is more fluid and dynamic. With test cases being created and executed on the fly. The tester’s goal is to understand the software application and identify defects or risks that may not be apparent using scripted testing approaches.
During exploratory testing, the tester uses their knowledge of the software application and its intended use to explore different scenarios and user interactions. The tester may also use tools and techniques. Such as automated testing tools, debugging tools, and exploratory charters to help guide their testing.
Q9. Explain, what is a test environment?
A test environment is a dedicated environment or setup in which software testing is conducted. It is a controlled and isolated environment where software testers can perform test activities without affecting the live or production environment.
A test environment may consist of hardware, software, network configurations, databases, test data, and other components required for software testing. The goal of a test environment is to provide an environment that is as close to the production environment. As possible to simulate real-world scenarios and to ensure that the software application performs as expected in a live environment.
A test environment can be set up in different ways depending on the type of testing being performed. Such as unit testing, integration testing, system testing, and user acceptance testing. Each of these testing types may require different test environment setups to ensure that the testing environment meets the specific needs of the testing activity.
The benefits of having a test environment include:
Minimizing risks: A test environment reduces the risk of affecting the live environment during testing as testing is conducted in an isolated environment.
Improved testing efficiency: A test environment can improve testing efficiency by providing dedicated resources for testing. By enabling testers to perform testing activities without interference from other applications or processes.
Better quality assurance: A test environment can provide a realistic environment that simulates real-world scenarios. Which can help identify and resolve defects and issues before the software application is released to production.
Cost-effective testing: A test environment can save costs by providing a controlled environment that can be easily set up and maintained, reducing the costs associated with testing in a live environment.
In summary, a test environment is a dedicated and controlled environment that enables software testers to conduct testing activities without affecting the live or production environment. It provides a range of benefits, including risk minimization, improved testing efficiency, better quality assurance, and cost-effective testing.
Q10. Explain different types of test coverage techniques?
There are several types of test coverage techniques that are commonly used in software testing. Here are some of the most important ones:
Statement coverage: This technique involves testing each line of code in the program at least once. This is the most basic level of test coverage, and it ensures that every line of code has been executed at least once.
Branch coverage: This technique involves testing each possible branch in the program. A branch is a decision point in the code where the program can take one of two or more paths. Branch coverage ensures that every possible path has been executed at least once.
Condition coverage: This technique involves testing each possible outcome of a Boolean expression in the program. This ensures that every possible value of the expression has been tested.
Path coverage: This technique involves testing every possible path through the program. This includes all possible combinations of branches, loops, and other control structures.
Function and method coverage: This technique involves testing each function or method in the program at least once. This ensures that every function or method has been executed at least once.
Interface coverage: This technique involves testing all possible interactions between the software and its external environment. This includes testing all possible inputs, outputs, and error conditions.
There are also other types of test coverage techniques. Such as data flow coverage and mutation coverage. Which are used in more advanced testing scenarios. The goal of all of these techniques is to ensure that the software has been thoroughly tested and that all potential defects have been identified and addressed.
Q11. Explain how does a test coverage tool work?
A test coverage tool is a software tool that is designed to analyze the code of a software program. It determines how much of it has been covered by a set of test cases. Here’s a basic overview of how a test coverage tool works:
Instrumentation: The tool first “instruments” the code, which means it modifies the source code or bytecode of the program to insert special markers or hooks that enable the tool to track the execution of the program during testing. This process can be done either statically (before the code is compiled) or dynamically (during runtime).
Test Execution: The test coverage tool runs the set of test cases on the instrumented program. As the program executes, the tool collects data on which parts of the code have been executed and how many times they have been executed.
Data Collection: The test coverage tool then aggregates the data it has collected to produce a coverage report. This report typically includes metrics such as statement coverage, branch coverage, and condition coverage. As well as information on which lines of code were executed and which were not.
Analysis: The test coverage tool can also perform further analysis on the coverage data. To help identify areas of the code that may be more likely to contain defects or that require additional testing.
Test coverage tools can be integrated into various development environments. Such as Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) or Continuous Integration (CI) systems. To help developers and testers track the effectiveness of their testing efforts and identify areas that require additional testing. By using a test coverage tool, development teams can ensure that their software is more thoroughly tested and can identify and fix defects more quickly, leading to higher-quality software and better customer satisfaction.
Q12. Explain briefly about Black-box testing, White-box testing, and Grey-box testing.
Black-box testing, white-box testing, and grey-box testing are different testing methodologies used in software testing. Here’s a brief overview of each:
Black-box testing: In this testing methodology, the tester does not have access to the internal workings of the software being tested. The tester focuses on the inputs and outputs of the software. Without any knowledge of how the software processes the inputs or generates the outputs. This methodology is useful for testing the functionality of the software and ensuring that it meets the requirements specified in the design or functional specifications.
White-box testing: White-box testing is a testing methodology in which the tester has full knowledge of the internal workings of the software being tested. The tester focuses on testing the individual code segments, functions, and modules of the software. This methodology is useful for testing the correctness of the software and ensuring that it adheres to the coding standards and best practices.
Grey-box testing: Grey-box testing is a testing methodology that combines elements of both black-box and white-box testing. In grey-box testing, the tester has some knowledge of the internal workings of the software being tested, but not full knowledge. This methodology is useful for testing the integration between different modules of the software and ensuring that the software works as intended in real-world scenarios.
Each testing methodology has its own strengths and weaknesses and is suited for different types of testing. By using a combination of these methodologies, testing teams can ensure that the software is thoroughly tested. And that all potential defects have been identified and addressed.
Q13. Explain What is test scenarios, test scripts, and test cases in software testing.
Test scenarios, test scripts, and test cases are all important components of software testing. Here’s a brief overview of each:
Test scenarios: A test scenario is a hypothetical situation or use case that a tester creates to test a particular feature or function of the software. A test scenario outlines the steps that the user would take to test the software under a specific scenario or situation. Test scenarios are typically high-level and are used to identify potential issues or problems with the software.
Test scripts: A test script is a set of instructions that a tester follows to perform a specific test. A test script can be either manual or automated. A manual test script outlines the steps that a tester should take to test the software. While an automated test script is a set of instructions that are run automatically by testing tools. Test scripts are typically more detailed and specific than test scenarios and are used to ensure that the software functions correctly and meets the required specifications.
Test cases: A test case is a specific set of inputs, actions, and expected results that a tester uses to verify that a particular feature or function of the software works as intended. A test case includes specific details such as the input data, the expected output, and any preconditions or postconditions required for the test. Test cases are typically more granular and detailed than test scenarios and are used to identify and isolate specific issues or defects in the software.
All three of these components are important for ensuring that the software is thoroughly tested. Meets the requirements and specifications set forth by the project stakeholders. By using a combination of test scenarios, test scripts, and test cases, testers can identify and address potential issues in the software. And ensure that it is of high quality and meets the needs of its users.
Q14. Explain what is a bug in software testing?
In software testing, a bug refers to an error, flaw, or fault in the software that causes it to behave in unintended ways or to produce incorrect results. These bugs can be the result of mistakes made by the software developers during the coding process, or they may be the result of unexpected interactions between different parts of the software.
When a bug is present in the software, it can cause the software to crash, produce incorrect results, or behave in unexpected ways. This can have serious consequences, especially in critical software systems such as those used in healthcare or transportation.
Finding and fixing bugs is a critical part of the software development process. Software testers are responsible for identifying and reporting bugs to the development team, who then work to fix them. The goal is to ensure that the software is as bug-free as possible before it is released to the public.
Q15. Explain the difference between bugs and errors?
The terms “bugs” and “errors” are often used interchangeably in software development and testing, but they can have slightly different meanings depending on the context. In general, “error” is a more generic term that refers to any deviation from expected behavior, while “bug” is a more specific term that implies a mistake in the software’s code or design.
Here are a few ways to differentiate between these two terms:
Cause: An error can be caused by a variety of factors. Such as a mistake in the software’s code, an incorrect configuration, or a problem with the hardware or network. A bug, on the other hand, is typically caused by an error in the software’s code or design.
Timeframe: An error can occur at any time during the software’s lifecycle, from design and development to testing and production. A bug, however, is usually introduced during the coding phase and is typically caught during testing.
Severity: Errors can range from minor issues that have little impact on the software’s functionality to major problems that cause the software to crash or produce incorrect results. Bugs, however, are usually considered to be more serious, as they represent a flaw in the software’s code or design that can potentially affect the entire system.
Overall, while there may be some overlap between the term’s “bugs” and “errors,” they tend to have different connotations and implications in the software development and testing world.
Q16. What is a Test Plan in software testing? What does it include?
A test plan is a document that outlines the approach, scope, objectives, and resources for a software testing project. It serves as a roadmap for the testing process. Helping the testing team to ensure that all necessary tests are carried out and the software meets required quality standards.
A typical test plan may include the following components:
Introduction: This section provides an overview of the software project, including its purpose, scope, and objectives.
Test objectives: This section outlines the specific goals and objectives of the testing process. Such as ensuring that the software is functional, reliable, and user-friendly.
Test scope: This section defines the scope of the testing process, including the features and functions that will be tested. As well as any areas that will not be tested.
Test approach: This section outlines the overall approach to testing, including the types of tests that will be conducted. The testing methods that will be used, and the tools and technologies that will be employed.
Test schedule: This section provides a timeline for the testing process, including the dates when different testing activities will be carried out.
Test environment: This section describes the hardware, software, and other resources that will be required for testing. Such as test beds, testing tools, and testing data.
Test deliverables: This section lists the specific documents and artifacts that will be produced during the testing process. Such as test cases, test reports, and defect reports.
Test risks: This section identifies any potential risks or issues that may impact the testing process. Such as schedule delays, resource constraints, or technical challenges.
Overall, a test plan is a comprehensive document that outlines the strategy, scope, and objectives of a software testing project. Providing a roadmap for the testing team to follow in order to ensure that software meets the required quality standards.
Q17. What is a Test Report in software testing? What does it include?
A test report is a document that summarizes the results of a software testing effort. It provides an overview of the testing process, the testing results, and any issues or defects that were identified during testing.
A typical test report may include the following components:
Introduction: This section provides an overview of the testing process, including the purpose of the testing, the scope of the testing, and the testing objectives.
Testing results: This section provides a summary of the testing results, including the number of tests that were conducted, the types of tests that were performed, and the percentage of tests that passed and failed.
Defects and issues: This section identifies any defects or issues that were found during testing, including a description of the issue, the severity of the issue, and the steps that were taken to reproduce the issue.
Test coverage: This section describes the areas of the software that were tested, including the specific features, functions, and modules that were tested.
Test summary: This section provides an overall summary of the testing effort, including the time and resources that were required. The overall test coverage, and any recommendations for future testing efforts.
Conclusion: This section provides a summary of the key findings and recommendations from the testing effort. Including any issues that were identified, any improvements that were made, and any recommendations for future testing.
Overall, a test report provides a comprehensive overview of the testing process and results. Serving as a key document for the development team, stakeholders, and other interested parties to understand the quality and performance of the software being tested.
Q18. Explain different categories of debugging?
Debugging is the process of identifying and resolving errors, defects, or issues in software code. There are several categories of debugging that can be used to identify and resolve software issues. Here are some of the common categories:
Code-level debugging: This type of debugging involves using a debugger to step through the code and identify errors. Code-level debugging can be effective for identifying issues related to logic errors, memory leaks, and other low-level issues in the code.
System-level debugging: This type of debugging involves analyzing system-level issues, such as hardware failures, operating system issues, or network connectivity problems. System-level debugging can be helpful in identifying issues that may be affecting the overall performance of the software.
Performance debugging: This type of debugging involves analyzing the performance of the software to identify and address performance bottlenecks. Performance debugging can be used to identify issues such as slow response times, high CPU usage, or excessive memory usage.
User-level debugging: This type of debugging involves analyzing issues reported by users, such as errors or crashes in the software. User-level debugging can be helpful in identifying issues related to user workflows or interactions with the software.
Security debugging: This type of debugging involves analyzing the security of the software to identify and address potential security vulnerabilities. Security debugging can be used to identify issues such as buffer overflows, SQL injection, or cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerabilities.
Overall, different categories of debugging can be used to identify and resolve issues at various levels of the software, ranging from low-level code issues to high-level system or user-related issues. By using a combination of these categories, software developers and testers can more effectively identify and resolve software issues to ensure that the software meets the required quality standards.
Q19. List some of the popular software testing tools/frameworks. Provide brief description of each tool.
There are many software testing tools and frameworks available that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of software testing efforts. Here are some popular tools and frameworks:
Selenium: Selenium is a popular open-source testing framework for web applications. It supports multiple programming languages, including Java, Python, and C#. It allows users to automate browser testing across different platforms.
Appium: Appium is an open-source testing tool for mobile applications. It supports both Android and iOS platforms. It allows users to write tests in multiple programming languages, including Java, Ruby, and Python.
JMeter: JMeter is an open-source testing tool for performance and load testing of web applications. It can simulate a large number of users, transactions, and data to measure the performance and scalability of web applications.
Postman: Postman is a popular API testing tool that allows users to test, document, and monitor APIs. It supports multiple protocols, including REST, SOAP, and GraphQL, and provides a user-friendly interface for creating and executing tests.
Cucumber: Cucumber is an open-source testing tool for behavior-driven development (BDD). It allows users to write tests in natural language, making it easy to understand and collaborate with stakeholders.
Jenkins: Jenkins is an open-source automation server that can be used for continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) of software applications. It supports a wide range of plugins and integrations, making it a flexible and customizable tool for software development and testing.
TestRail: TestRail is a test management tool that allows users to manage and organize testing efforts. It provides a user-friendly interface for creating and executing tests, tracking test results, and generating reports.
Robot Framework: Robot Framework is an open-source testing tool that can be used for acceptance testing, unit testing, and robotic process automation (RPA). It supports multiple programming languages and provides a flexible and extensible framework for testing and automation.
Overall, there are many software testing tools and frameworks available that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of software testing efforts. By selecting the right tool or framework for a specific testing need. Software developers and testers can more effectively identify and resolve issues to ensure that the software meets the required quality standards.
Q20. What is A/B testing in software testing?
A/B testing, also known as split testing, is a software testing methodology that involves comparing two different versions of a product or feature to determine which one is more effective. A/B testing is commonly used in web and mobile applications to measure the impact of design changes or new features on user behavior.
In an A/B test, a random sample of users is split into two groups the control group and test group. The control group is shown the original version of the product or feature while the test group is shown the new version. The user behavior of both groups is then compared to determine which version is more effective.
A/B testing can be used to measure a wide range of factors. Which includes conversion rates, user engagement, click-through rates, and other key performance indicators (KPIs). By comparing the results of the control group and the test group, software developers and testers can determine whether the new version of the product or feature is more effective and make data-driven decisions about which version to implement.
A/B testing can be a valuable tool for improving the user experience of web and mobile applications. By testing new ideas and features in a controlled environment, software developers and testers can ensure that changes are effective and do not negatively impact the user experience.
Q21. What is latent defect and masked defect in software testing?
Latent defects and masked defects are two types of software defects that can occur during software testing.
A latent defect is a defect that is present in the software but has not yet been discovered. These defects can remain hidden for a long time and may only be discovered after the software has been deployed and is in use. Latent defects are also known as “hidden defects,” and can be caused by factors such as incomplete testing or insufficient validation.
A masked defect, on the other hand, is a defect that is present in the software, but is not discovered because another defect is masking its symptoms. This can occur when multiple defects are present in the software, and one defect causes a symptom that is similar to the symptom caused by another defect. When the first defect is fixed, the symptom disappears, masking the presence of the second defect. This can lead to the second defect remaining undetected, even though it is still present in the software.
Both latent defects and masked defects can be challenging to detect and resolve and can have a negative impact on the quality of the software. To minimize the risk of these types of defects, software developers and testers should perform thorough testing and validation of the software and use a range of testing methodologies to identify and address potential issues. This can include techniques such as exploratory testing, regression testing, and unit testing, among others.
Q22. Explain about sanity testing in software testing?
Sanity testing, also known as smoke testing, is a type of software testing that is performed to quickly assess whether the software is ready for further testing. The purpose of a sanity test is to check the basic functionality of the software, and to ensure that it is stable enough for more rigorous testing.
In a sanity test, the tester checks a subset of the software’s functionality to determine whether it is working as expected. This may include verifying that software starts up correctly. The basic features are working, and the critical functionality is not broken. The goal is to identify any major issues that would prevent further testing from proceeding, such as crashes, freezes, or other serious bugs.
Sanity testing is typically performed early in the software development cycle, after a new build or version of the software has been completed. It is often performed before more comprehensive testing. Such as regression testing or functional testing, to ensure that the software is stable and ready for more in-depth testing.
Some common examples of sanity tests include:
- Verifying that the software can start up without crashing or displaying error message.
- Checking that the user interface is functional and displays correctly.
- Testing critical functionality, such as login or user authentication.
- Verifying that data can be input and output correctly.
If any major issues are identified during a sanity test, they should be addressed before proceeding with more in-depth testing. This can help to prevent wasted time and effort on testing, and ensure that the software is stable and functional before it is released to users.
Q23. What is the purpose of TestNG in Software Testing?
TestNG is a popular testing framework for Java that is used for automated testing of software applications. It is designed to make testing more flexible, scalable, and maintainable. It provides a wide range of features and functionalities for testing Java applications.
The purpose of TestNG is to make it easier for developers and testers to write and run automated tests for their software applications. Some of the key features of TestNG include:
- Flexible test configuration: TestNG allows testers to define tests in XML files. Which can be customized to include a wide range of configurations and settings.
- Data-driven testing: TestNG supports data-driven testing, which allows testers to run the same test with different data inputs.
- Parallel testing: TestNG supports parallel testing, which allows tests to be run in parallel on multiple threads, speeding up the testing process.
- Test grouping: TestNG allows tests to be grouped into categories and executed based on those categories, making it easier to manage and organize tests.
- Dependency testing: TestNG allows tests to be dependent on each other, so that tests are run in a specific order based on their dependencies.
- Extensibility: TestNG is designed to be easily extendable, so that developers and testers can add their own custom features and functionality to the testing framework.
Overall, the purpose of TestNG is to provide a robust and flexible testing framework for Java applications. Making easier for developers and testers to write and execute automated tests.
Q24. Explain best way to set priority for test cases in TestNG?
Setting the priority for test cases in TestNG is an important step in test planning. As it helps to prioritize the tests and ensure that critical functionality is tested first. Here are some best practices for setting priorities for test cases in TestNG:
- Using Priority Attribute: You can use the “priority” attribute in the @Test annotation to set the priority for each test case. The priority value can be an integer number and TestNG will execute the test cases in order of their priority values. For example:
- Using XML Configuration: TestNG allows you to define the order of test methods in an XML configuration file. In the XML file, you can group test methods and define their priority values. TestNG will execute the test methods in the order defined in the XML file. For example:
- Using depends On Methods Attribute: You can use the “depends On Methods” attribute in the @Test annotation to define dependencies between test methods. TestNG will execute the test methods in the order of their dependencies. For example:
These are some of the ways to set priority for test cases in TestNG. You can choose the method that suits your testing needs and use it to ensure that your tests are executed in the desired order.
Q25. What is Object Repository?
An Object Repository is a central location in software testing where the objects or elements of the application under test (AUT) are stored, along with their associated properties and methods. The Object Repository serves as a map or dictionary that contains all the information about the objects used in automated tests. It is used by automated testing tools to access and manipulate these objects during test execution.
In other words, an Object Repository is a mechanism for maintaining and managing all the test objects in a centralized location. Making it easier to maintain and update the test scripts. The Object Repository can be maintained in different formats, such as XML, Excel, or any other database format.
The Object Repository typically contains the following information about the objects:
- Identification of the object: This includes the name, ID, class, tag name, or any other unique identifier that can be used to identify the object.
- Properties of the object: This includes the different attributes of the object, such as size, location, color, font, or any other visual or non-visual attributes.
- Methods of the object: This includes the actions that can be performed on the object, such as click, select, type, or any other relevant actions.
By using an Object Repository, test automation engineers can easily map the test objects in the AUT to the test script. This helps in improving the maintainability, reusability, and scalability of the automated tests, reducing the test maintenance efforts, and improving the overall test coverage.
Q26. Does Automation testing in agile methodology useful?
Yes, automation testing can be very useful in Agile methodology. In Agile development, software is developed in short iterations and delivered quickly, which means that testing must be done frequently and efficiently. Automation testing helps to achieve this by enabling the automation of repetitive, time-consuming testing tasks.
With automation testing, tests can be run quickly and repeatedly. Making it easier to catch defects early in the development cycle. This is particularly important in Agile development. Where rapid feedback is crucial for ensuring that the software is meeting customer requirements.
Additionally, automation testing can help improve the efficiency of the testing process by reducing the time and effort required to perform manual testing. This means that testers can focus on more complex and higher-value testing activities, such as exploratory testing.
However, it’s important to note that automation testing is not a silver bullet and should not be used as a substitute for manual testing. There are certain types of testing, such as usability testing and exploratory testing, that are better performed manually. It’s also important to have a well-designed automation testing strategy in place to ensure that the tests are effective and efficient.
Software Testing Interview Questions for Experienced
Q27. Explain importance of testing in software development?
Testing plays a critical role in software development as it helps to ensure that software is of high quality and meets the requirements of end-users. The primary role of testing in software development is to identify defects, errors, or bugs in the software and to ensure that it meets the functional, performance, and security requirements.
Some of the key roles of testing in software development include:
- Verification and Validation: Testing is used to verify that software is developed as per the requirements and specifications that meets customer’s needs.
- Early detection of defects: Testing helps in identifying defects and bugs early in the development process. Which helps to reduce the cost of fixing defects.
- Ensuring Quality: Testing is used to ensure that software meets the quality standards set by the organization and industry.
- Enhancing user experience: Testing helps in ensuring that software is user-friendly, easy to use, and meets the end-users’ expectations.
- Minimizing Risks: Testing helps in minimizing the risks associated with software development. Such as security risks, performance issues, and potential failures.
- Continuous Improvement: Testing is used to collect feedback and improve the software continuously. Thereby ensuring that the software meets the evolving needs of the users and the market.
In summary, the role of testing in software development is critical in ensuring that software is developed as per the requirements. Its, meets quality standards, user-friendly, and free from errors and defects. Testing helps in ensuring that the software is of high quality, meets the customer’s needs, and delivers value to the organization.
Q28. Explain, what is functional testing?
Functional testing is a type of testing that focuses on verifying the functional behavior of a software application. It involves testing the software application’s functionality against the functional requirements and specifications to ensure that it performs as expected.
Functional testing can be performed manually or automated, and it involves the following steps:
- Requirement analysis: This involves reviewing the software application’s functional requirements and specifications to identify the scope of testing.
- Test case design: This involves designing test cases that cover the different functional scenarios and use cases of the software application.
- Test execution: This involves running the test cases to validate the software application’s functionality.
- Defect reporting: This involves reporting any defects or issues found during the testing process.
- Defect verification: This involves verifying that the defects have been fixed and re-testing the software application to ensure that the issues have been resolved.
Functional testing can be divided into different types based on the scope and level of testing. Some common types of functional testing include:
- Unit testing: This involves testing individual units or modules of the software application.
- Integration testing: This involves testing the integration between different modules or components of the software application.
- System testing: This involves testing the entire system to ensure that it meets the functional requirements and specifications.
- User acceptance testing: This involves testing the software application with real end-users to ensure that it meets their needs and expectations.
In summary, functional testing is a type of testing that verifies functional behavior of a software application to ensure that it meets the functional requirements and specifications. It is an essential part of the software development life cycle and helps to ensure that software is of high quality and meets the customer’s needs.
Q29. Explain, what is non-functional testing?
Non-functional testing is a type of testing that focuses on verifying the non-functional aspects of a software application. Such as its performance, reliability, usability, security, and compatibility. Unlike functional testing, non-functional testing is concerned with the non-behavioral aspects of a software application.
Non-functional testing is essential in ensuring that a software application meets the non-functional requirements and specifications. Which are often critical to the success of the application. It involves testing the software application’s characteristics that are not directly related to its functionality.
Some common types of non-functional testing include:
- Performance testing: This involves testing the software application’s performance under different conditions, such as load, stress, and scalability, to ensure that it meets the performance requirements.
- Usability testing: This involves testing the software application’s user interface, navigation, and user experience to ensure that it is user-friendly and easy to use.
- Security testing: This involves testing the software application’s security features and vulnerabilities to ensure that it is secure against threats and attacks.
- Compatibility testing: This involves testing the software application’s compatibility with different devices, platforms, and operating systems to ensure that it works seamlessly across different environments.
- Reliability testing: This involves testing the software application’s ability to perform consistently and reliably under different conditions to ensure that it meets the reliability requirements.
Non-functional testing is critical in ensuring that a software application meets the non-functional requirements and specifications, which are often as important as the functional requirements. It helps to ensure that the software application is of high quality, meets the customer’s needs, and delivers value to the organization.
Q30. Explain, what is a bug report?
A bug report, also known as a defect report, is a document or ticket that describes an issue or problem in a software application. It is typically created by a tester or quality assurance engineer during the testing phase of software development life cycle.
Some common components of a bug report include:
- Title/summary: A brief summary or title that describes the issue or problem.
- Description: A detailed description of the issue, including its symptoms, impact, and any relevant information.
- Steps to reproduce: A step-by-step description of how to reproduce the issue, including any specific inputs or conditions required.
- Expected results: A description of what the tester expects to happen when performing the steps to reproduce the issue.
- Actual results: A description of what actually happened when performing the steps to reproduce the issue.
- Severity: A rating or classification of the severity of the issue, such as critical, major, or minor.
- Attachments: Any relevant attachments, such as screenshots, log files, or test data.
Bug reports are an essential tool in software development and are used to identify and track issues or problems in software applications. It helps to ensure that issues are captured and addressed. It will make sure software application is of high quality, meets the customer’s needs, and delivers value to the organization.
Q31. Explain what is Test-Driven-Development? Explain some benefits of Test-Driven-Development.
Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process in which developers write automated tests before writing the code. The process involves writing a test case for a small piece of functionality, running it to ensure that it fails. Writing the code to make test pass, and then refactoring the code to improve its design and maintainability.
The TDD process typically follows these steps:
- Write a test: The developer writes an automated test for a small piece of functionality that has yet to be implemented.
- Run the test: The developer runs the test and expects it to fail since the functionality has not yet been implemented.
- Write the code: The developer writes the code to make the test pass.
- Run the test again: The developer runs the test again to ensure that it passes.
- Refactor the code: The developer refactors the code to improve its design, readability, and maintainability.
- Repeat: The developer repeats the process for the next piece of functionality, continuously iterating and improving the code.
TDD is based on the idea that writing tests before writing the code helps to improve the quality and reliability of the code. It also ensures that the code is testable and easy to maintain since it is written with testing in mind from beginning.
Some benefits of TDD include:
- Improved code quality: TDD helps to ensure that the code is of high quality and meets the requirements.
- Faster feedback: TDD provides faster feedback on the code’s quality, enabling developers to identify and fix issues early in the development cycle.
- Reduced debugging time: TDD helps to reduce debugging time since issues are identified and fixed early in the development cycle.
- Test coverage: TDD ensures that the code is thoroughly tested, providing high test coverage and reducing the risk of defects.
TDD is a popular approach to software development, particularly in agile development environments. Where it is essential to deliver high-quality software in short iterations.
Q32. What is Selenium? What are the benefits of Selenium?
Selenium is an open-source automation testing tool used for testing web applications. It supports a variety of programming languages, including Java, Python, and C#, and can be used to automate functional and regression testing of web applications.
Some of the benefits of using Selenium for testing include:
- Cross-browser compatibility: Selenium supports a variety of web browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer. Allowing developers to test their web applications across different browsers and operating systems.
- Open-source: Selenium is open-source software, meaning that it is freely available to use and customize to suit specific testing needs.
- Multiple programming language support: Selenium supports several programming languages, including Java, Python, and C#, making it accessible to developers with different language preferences.
- Extensibility: Selenium can be extended using plugins and add-ons. Allowing developers to customize the testing framework to suit their specific needs.
- Easy integration: Selenium can be easily integrated with other tools and frameworks. Such as Jenkins, TestNG, and JUnit, making it easy to incorporate into the software development process.
- Easy to learn: Selenium has a user-friendly interface and is easy to learn for testers and developers with basic programming knowledge.
- Automation: Selenium can be used to automate the testing of repetitive and time-consuming tasks. Such as regression testing, freeing up developers to focus on more complex and critical tasks.
Overall, Selenium is a powerful and flexible tool for web application testing. Offering numerous benefits to developers and testers who want to improve the quality and reliability of their web applications.
Q33. Explain the difference between verification and validation in software testing.
Verification and validation are two important concepts in software testing that are often used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings.
Verification: This is the process of evaluating the software to determine whether it meets the specified requirements and standards. Verification answers the question “Did we build the system right?” It involves reviewing the code, design documents, and other artifacts to ensure that they meet the specified requirements. It is typically done during the development phase. Verification can include techniques such as code reviews, walkthroughs, and inspections.
Validation: This is the process of evaluating the software to determine whether it meets the customer’s needs and expectations. Validation answers the question “Did we build the right system?” It involves testing the software against the customer’s requirements and expectations to ensure that it functions as intended and meets the customer’s needs. Validation can include techniques such as user acceptance testing and system testing.
In summary, verification focuses on ensuring that software is built according to specified requirements and standards. While validation focuses on ensuring that software meets the customer’s needs and expectations. Both verification and validation are important aspects of software testing. They are often performed in conjunction with each other to ensure the quality of the software product.
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